domingo, 22 de julho de 2007

Africa do Sul - Kruger Park - Passado e Presente (2)

Dos primeiros colonos ao "Kruger Park"
Povo San - Pintura Rupestre - Idade do Ferro 1000 a.C.
O povo San – igualmente denominado “Bushmen” - era um povo nómada-recolector que habitou todo o sul do continente africano não tendo, até à Idade do Ferro, qualquer outro concorrente na região. Por volta do ano 1000 a.C. o povo Bantu, vindo do norte de África, trouxe a sedentarização, a pastorícia e utensílios que lhes proporcionavam uma destreza precursora nas técnicas da agricultura. Durante centenas de anos ambos os povos coexistiram pacificamente nas planícies do Transval e nas margens do rio Sabie - território que corresponde hoje ao Kruger Park -. Estudos de DNA, levados a cabo por Spencer Wells, revelaram que o povo San se encontra entre os 14 povos mais antigos do mundo. No seu quadro genético, foram identificados traços comuns a toda a humanidade, levando este cientista a rotular este povo (na fotogr) como o "Adão Genético". Por volta do ano 1000 d. C. comercializava-se na região o cobre de Phalaborwa, sal de Balule, sorgo e feijão. Muito embora os árabes já navegassem há centenas de anos nas costas de África e, posteriormente, os europeus a contornassem, no caminho marítimo para a Índia, só em meados do séc. 19 é que se efectuaram incursões a esta zona interior do continente africano. João Albasini, comerciante português, estabeleceu em 1830 uma relação cordial com os chefes das tribos locais, fixando-se nas margens do rio Sabie. Dez anos depois surgem os primeiros colonos, atraídos por rumores da existência de ouro na região, marfim e peles exóticas de animais. A sua chegada provocou um desequilíbrio imediato nos ecossistemas e nas estruturas políticas das comunidades locais. Paul Kruger (na fotogr.) , nascido em 1825, tinha-se instalado com a sua família na região do Transval e, em 1883, torna-se o 5º Presidente da África do Sul, depois da primeira guerra Anglo-Boer. Preocupado com a caça descontrolada e a dizimação das espécies animais na região impulsiona, durante o seu mandato, a criação de legislação proteccionista ambiental. É graças aos seus esforços que são criadas as primeiras reservas naturais: a "Sabie Game Reserve" em 1898 e a "Singwitsi Game Reserve" em 1903.
É precisamente da comunhão de ambas as reservas que em 1926 é criado o "Kruger National Park", sendo aberto ao público em 1927 tendo recebido, nesse primeiro ano, a visita de 3 automóveis.

6 comentários:

Olga disse...

Hi TI, Africa is fascinating me more and more, it must be such a wonderful thing to do travel there and see all the nature and beauty and the undeveloped landscape. I started to think how ideal it could be to live somewhere in an island and lead a simple life. Wake up each morning, enjoy the sunrise and the ocean and the beauty around and never bother about anything else...

Viagens pelo Mundo disse...

Hello Olga,
In fact, Africa is absolutely fascinating. It’ s a land of huge contrasts. On one hand, you have all that natural and unique beauties and you come back with the desire of returning one day, but on the other hand, you also come back with some sadness in your heart because a big part of the population struggles to survive. Poverty is too obvious and incomprehensible in countries with such an enormous economical potential. Maybe we ‘d have to go back in History to find these explanations.

That idea of a simple life really attracts me! I believe that the picture that you showed me is Paradise, isn’t it ? Where is it? I have to move there immediately!!! Believe me, I have a daily dream with Paradise! How I wish I could only read what I want and not what I have to! That’ s my daily struggle! A big hug! TI

Viagens pelo Mundo disse...

Olga,

I was thinking... and...in fact we have that Paradise here!!!If it's a matter of wake up in the morning...enjoying the sun, the ocean and the beauty around, we have that here (I was forgotten!!)...and you don't even have to bother with anything...just come for 2 or 3 weeks and you will meet Paradise in Portugal! How come I didn't realize that?

Viagens pelo Mundo disse...

Oh, I don't have an island but...are you open to other suggestions?

Olga disse...

Hi TI, what you say about Africa is so true with many other places.. I saw poverty when we traveled to Asia and certain regions of Eastern Europe are like this as well...My friends who were on holiday in Cuba or Mexico say the same - it was a bit shameful for them to stay in a nice hotel when people around didn't have enough to buy food. We are definitely lucky to be where we are..

When I wrote about the island or what you called Paradise maybe I was thinking about something like Tahiti o Bora Bora (where I can only dream of going), but you know what - you are definitely right about Portugal! I have never been there, and I can just compare with Spain where I was many times in various regions and I always envied Spanish people who have got the beautiful weather, this more relaxing culture and the warm and beautiful sea. I bet there are some similarities with Portugal, although I'm sure it differs in many ways from Spain! But it is funny you said you have forgotten about the fact you have that Paradise where you are :) You know in my language there is a saying: 'It is always better where we are not (staying, living) at the moment'. It always applies to me - I always want to go to some place different! :) Now that I have met you I have been thinking more and more about going to Portugal - we wanted to for a long time now, but as we didn't know anyone from there it was more of a 'distant, long-term' plan. I'm going to write you more of my thoughts about this in an email! Hugs! Olga

Viagens pelo Mundo disse...

Hi Olga,
Our feelings are equally shared. When we are travelling many times we feel that in many ways we are contributing to the economy of those countries yet, we feel that wealth is poorly distributed and there’s always a part of the population which is neglected.

I’m sure you will find Portugal even more relaxing than Spain. Portuguese people are worldwide known for their warm and friendly hospitality. I’m sure you’ll both enjoy your staying in Portugal and we’ll talk about that by mail, because I’ve got many things to tell you. You’re right, many times we live in Paradise and we forgot that. Maybe it has to do with that insatiable search of the human nature of always trying to move a step forward and try to reach what we don’ t have. Maybe the pleasure we get from our trips has something to do with that. We simply could travel around Portugal, which is beautiful enough to get my attention for quite a long time, but instead we look for distant countries and sometimes we even dream with the unreachable. I guess that if we didn’t have dreams life would be very boring. Dreams make us run towards something and motivate us to fight, that’s human nature too…and I guess it’s nice. Looking forward for your mail and have a wonderful day. TI